Publication guidelines

Kronos is a biannual technical and scientific publication devoted to publishing articles concerning Physical Activity and Sports Sciences. Due to its connection to the School of Physical Activity and Sports Sciences and to the Center for Excellence in Physical Activity and Sports at the Universidad Europea, the main research interests of the journal are:

  • Exercise Physiology.
  • Nutrition and sports training.
  • Team sports: Genetics, Expertise, and Analysis.

Papers considered for publication by Kronos will primarily be scientific: theoretical contributions, trials, empirical papers and studies based on professional experience. All articles submitted for publication should be original. Papers that have already been published, totally or partially, or that have been submitted for consideration for any other publication will not be accepted. The corresponding author assumes the responsibility on behalf of all co-authors.

All submitted articles should constitute relevant contributions to one or more of the following fields:

  • Sports Performance: training, biomechanics, physiology, psychology, sport technologies.
  • Teaching of physical activity and sports: physical education in school, sport initiation and training, professional training.
  • Leisure, nature activities, tourism and recreation: aspects related to management, facilities, professional sports, inclusive sports programs, event organization.
  • Physical activity and health: corporal expression, dance and rhythm, special populations.
  • Social and human sciences: sociology, history and theory of sports.
  • Legislation.
  • Doctoral dissertations. Abstracts of doctoral dissertations defended at the Universidad Europea will be published in this section.


The submission process will be made through the on-line platform and it will be essential to complete the corresponding sections with the name of all the authors and their institutional affiliation in the corresponding fields but never in the written work.

Affiliations will generally include information regarding the department, institution, city, and country.

Manuscripts should strictly follow the APA publication guidelines (last edition).  Manuscripts that fail to comply with these guidelines will not be considered for publication.

Papers should be double-spaced on one side with a maximum length of 6000 words (including the abstract, the main text, notes, references and tables) and up to 40 references. Papers should be prepared using Times New Roman (pitch 12), with margins of 3 cm. All pages should be numbered and paginated, as well as each line of page.

The sections of the original work must be in capital letters. The subsections must be lowercase letters.

The journal accepts manuscripts in Spanish or in English and the authors must provide the following information when registering the work on the on-line platform:

  • Author’s information: Full name of each author (two surnames and name) and their institutions, city and country.
  • Contact information (full mailing address, telephones and emails).


The works presented will continue the following structure:

  1. Title of the paper in Spanish.
  2. Title of the article in English.
  3. An abstract of the paper in Spanish, of no more than 200 words. The last sentence of the abstract should summarize the practical applications or the main findings contained in the paper.
  4. 2 to 4 key words in Spanish.
  5. An abstract of the paper in English, of no more than 200 words. The last sentence of the abstract should summarize the practical applications or the main findings contained in the paper.
  6. 2 to 4 key words in English.
  7. Funding sources, conferences or symposiums where the paper has been previously presented, if any, should be indicated.
  8. The text must contain the following sections with titles in ALL CAPS in this exact order: INTRODUCTION, METHOD, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS, REFERENCES.

Footnotes are not allowed. They should be incorporated into the text.

  1. The works of bibliographical review will have to continue the following structure: INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY (that includes the subsections Design, Strategy of search, Criteria of inclusion and exclusion, Extraction of information and Data analysis), RESULTS, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, REFERENCES.


References should be cited in accordance with to the following procedure:

If there is just one author, the surname goes first followed by the year of publication in parentheses, e.g.: “hypoxia diminishes maximal cardiac output” (Pugh, 1964).

If the manuscript is written by two authors, their names will appear before the year of publication, e.g.: “Elastic potentiation contributes to an improved jump capacity” (Komi and Bosco, 1972). If there are more than two authors, the first time must be all of them and the next time the first author’s surname and “et al.,” are used followed by the year of publication, e.g.: “Lower leg moment of inertia increases with growth” (Fernández et al., 1975).

If more than two papers are cited, they should be separated by “;” in alphabetical order, e.g.: “Transverse section of muscles is the main factor determining muscle strength” (Arteaga and Ramírez, 1999; Comí, 1992; Kraemer et al., 2000). If papers of the same group or author published in the same year are cited, they will appear in chronological order with the letters “a, b, c, d, …” followed by the date. e.g.: (Kraemer et al., 1996a; 1997a,b).

When citing an unpublished source the author should be quoted in the text including “personal communication” in parentheses.

In the section of references, citations will appear in alphabetical order. Citations should include the surname of the authors followed by the initials of the name. If the paper is written by more than one author, authors will be cited consecutively up to a maximum of seven, separated by commas. If there are more than seven authors, the first three are listed followed by “et al.,”. The year of publication will be cited in parentheses following authors, then, the title of the paper, the journal abbreviation (italics) in accordance with the abbreviations of Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index. If the journal does not appear in the indexes abovementioned, the full name of the journal should be cited. Finally, the volume number in italics and the number of the first and last pages separated by a hyphen.

Examples of sources Books:

Aboud, F. E. (1988). Children and prejuice. New York: Blackwell.

Book chapters:

Alvarado, J.M., Santalla, Z., Santisteban, C. (1998). Competición entre respuestas bajo distintas configuraciones estimulares en relación con el SOA y la distancia. In J. Botella & V. Ponsoda (Eds.), La atención: un enfoque pluridisciplinar (pp.107-118). Valencia: Promolibro.

MacDougall, J. (1991). Hypertrophy or hyperplasia. In P.V. Komi (Eds), Strength and power in sports (pp. 230-238). (Encyclopedia of sports medicine). Oxford: Blackwell.

Stephenson, D.G., Lamb, G.D., Stephenson, G.M.M. & Fryer, M.W (1996). Mechanisms of excitation and contraction coupling relevant to skeletal muscle fatigue. In S.C. Gandavia, R.M. Enoka, A.J. McManus, D.G. Stuart & C.K.Thomas (Eds.), Fatigue: Neural and muscular mechanisms (pp. 45-56). New York: Plenum Press.

Standard journal article:

Coyle, E.F. (1998). Cardiovascular drift during prolonged exercise and the effects of dehydration. Int J Sports Med19, S121-S124.

Lucia, A., Pardo, J., Durantez, A., Hoyos, J., Chicharro, J.L. (1998). Physiological differences between professional and elite road cyclists. Int. J. Sports Med, 19, 342-348.

Pollard, R., & Pollard, G. (2005). Long-term trends in home advantage in professional team sports in North America and England (1876-2003). Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(4), 337- 350.

Rodríguez, F.A., Ventura, J.L., Casas, M. et al., (2000b). Erythropoietin acute reaction and haematological adaptations to short, intermittent hypobaric hypoxia. Eur J Appl Physiol82, 170-177.

Standard journal article with DOI:

Rockett, I., Lian, Y., Stack, S., Wang, S. & Ducatman, A. (2009). Discrepant comorbidity between minority and white suicides: A national multiple cause-of-death analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 9. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-9-10

Standard article published in a newspaper:

Arellano, P. (2005, agosto 24). Para la FIFA, en el Mundial fallaron los asistentes. Marca, p.15.

Conference proceedings:

Howe, B.L. & Bell, G.J. (1986). Mood states and motivation of triathletes. In J. Watkins, T. Reilly & L. Burwitz (Eds.), Sports science: Proceedings of the VII Commonwealth and International Conference on Sport, Physical Education, Dance, Recreation and Health (pp. 273-278). London: E & FN Spon.

Paper cited by an author who is not the original author:

Mischel, W. (1981). [El futuro de la medición de la personalidad.] In A. Fierro (Comp. y trad.), Lecturas de psicología de la personalidad. Madrid: Alianza Editorial (Reprinted from American Psychologist, 1977, 32).

Doctoral dissertations:

Vega Marcos, R. (2002). Desarrollo del metaconocimiento táctico y comprensión del juego: Un enfoque constructivista aplicado al fútbol. [Unpublished PhD Thesis]. Atonomous University of Madrid.

Web pages:

Urbano, C., Estivill, A. (1997). Como citar recursos electrónicos. Retrieved from

Ballester, L. (1997). La lógica situacional de Karl Popper y la metodología de la investigación social y educativa. Revista Electrónica de Investigación y Evaluación Educativa, 50, 750- 765. Retrieved from

Meyers, L. (2007, December). Serenity now. APA Monitor, pp. 32. Retrieved from

Bellendier, J. (2002). Ataque de rotación en el voleibol, un enfoque actualizado. Lecturas de Educación Física y Deporte. Electronic publication. Retrieved from


Tables should be numbered consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text. E.g. (Table 1). Tables should be provided with a title in the top. E.g.: “Table 1 Physical characteristics of the subjects”. Tables should be easily understood. If abbreviations are used, they should be explained in footnotes. The format of the tables should be as simple as possible. The number of lines should be reduced to minimize the space between columns and rows. Bibliographic reviews and original papers with more than five tables will not be accepted.


Figures should be cited in consecutive order, abbreviated and in parenthesis, e.g. (Fig. 1). Bibliographic reviews and original papers with more than seven figures will not be accepted. Figures should be incorporated only if they help understand the findings.


Authors interested in submitting a manuscript for review must enter the link: and complete the forms. The editorial board of the journal through its Editor in Chief will contact the author to report on the status of the manuscript, which can be one of the following:


Instructions will also be sent to the author instructions for sending changes if required.


Authors will be notified upon reception of their papers. Then, papers will be blindly reviewed by two independent evaluators.

If accepted, papers will be kept pending publication. If the manuscript is not accepted, authors will be informed of the reasons for exclusion and the possible modifications, if applicable.

Kronos reserves the right of publication of the manuscripts submitted, and their abstract, by any means at any time. If the paper is not published after a period of two years, the author can request the original text and material, of which Kronos will keep a copy.


  1. Authors and collaborators, without any remuneration, transfer the copyrights and the rights of distribution in any form by any means to Kronos for publication. The author shall comply with the norms of publication of the journal at all times.
  2. Authors of papers accepted for publication in Kronos declare under their entire responsibility and as an essential condition for acceptance, that they are entitled or have the right to make use of the intellectual property rights of the contents submitted. Such rights shall not be subject to claim by third parties.
  3. Kronos will not be held liable for all third party claims in connection to non-authorized use of the article.
  4. Authors could be required to prove the rights above mentioned, otherwise, Kronos will be empowered to withdraw the material with no responsibility for Kronos or for the European University of Madrid.
  5. Should authors fail to comply with the second provision of this clause, Kronos and the European University of Madrid reserve the right to compensation for the economic or moral damages caused.


When there exists any relationship between the authors of a work and any public or private entity from which might arise a conflict of interests, it must be communicated to the Editor. The authors shall complete a specific document.

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